This initiative transfers previous state in-house production to government purchase-of-services, and enables social organizations to produce and deliver social services in several projects. In China, project-based and post-based purchases are two typical models.
Athough CPEC offers more opportunities to Pakistan given the global connectivity of trade and investment expanded by China, yet the major question is how Pakistan and China can bring this vision into reality keeping in view the changing geopolitics in the South Asian region.
Scholars have discovered that imperial China was neither uniquely benevolent nor uniquely violent. William A. Callahan criticizes the reconstruction as an “idealized version of a hierarchical Sinocentric world order with the Chinese empire at the core and loyal tributary states and barbarians at the periphery.”
The negative news and the predictions of China’s collapse were “old hat.” As time passed, these accounts were discredited. So, the Western media had to reset. One tack is to push China and Trump’s America into conflict.
China’s reemergence in the 21st century has led to a gradual change in the historical consciousness of Chinese leaders who are more willing to celebrate the glories of imperial China, reconstructed as the benevolent center of East Asia, so as to advance the agenda of China’s rise.
Facing the dilemma of having to handle “two Chinas,” “One China, One Taiwan” or “Taiwan independence,” Beijing’s One-China principle appeared a few months before the signing of a mutual defense treaty between Washington and Taipei in December 1954.
Deng Xiaoping, having witnessed in the early 1990s the fall of communist regimes in eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, correctly analysed that the regimes’ downfalls were due to their inability to develop their economies and provide welfare for their people.
In the revived contemporary interest in the Maritime Silk Road, narratives about Zheng He may become part of the current discourse on Chinese plans to revive the maritime trading route which spans cities from China to Italy.
An effect of the warming relations between China and the Philippines has been the de-emphasis in Manila of the South China Sea dispute. This de-escalation of tensions has brought a surge of Chinese investment, as well as possible Sino-Philippine joint exploration of resources in the South China Sea.
Southeast Asia straddles both the Silk Road Economic Belt and the Maritime Silk Road, and the projects promise to stimulate economic development and trade in the participating nations. China and ASEAN seek to raise their trade to USD 1 trillion by 2020.